Latin for "to stand by things decided." Stare decisis is essentially the doctrine of precedent. Courts cite to stare decisis when an issue has been previously brought to the court and a ruling already issued. Generally, courts will adhere to the previous ruling, though this is not universally true. See, e.g., Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, 505 US 833 (1992). See also Jurisprudence.
The findings of a new Cornell study challenge the widely held belief that open access academic articles -- those published free online -- get cited more often in academic literature. The study concluded that open access publishing reaches more readers than subscription publishing, but found no evidence of a citation advantage the first year after publication. The findings are particularly relevant to academic researchers, because the frequency with which a researcher's work is cited can be a factor in tenure and promotion decisions.